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Superbike racing is a category of motorcycle racing that employs modified production motorcycles. Superbike championships are divided into classes based on displacement and amount of modifications allowed.
The Superbike class generally refers to 4 stroke motorcycles from 600cc up to 1000cc (800cc up to 1200cc for twin cylinders)in which substantial modifications are allowed. The class for motorcycles of the same displacements where modifications are limited is generally referred to as "Superstock 1000"

Sport touring


Sport touring bikes are designed with a longer distance riding emphasis. They typically feature more creature comforts than that of the average sport bike. Sport touring bikes are typically heavier, less powerful, and less performance oriented than super sport bikes, but have the added capabilities of storage, more comfortable rider ergonomics, and better practicality. Depending on the amount of emphasis on these touring capabilities, sport touring bikes can range from super sport bikes with more comfortable rider ergonomics to full-featured touring motorcycles with sport bike-like capabilities and features.
Examples include the Honda VFR800, Triumph Sprint ST, and Yamaha FJR1300.

Hyper sport


Hyper sport bikes are very large displacement sport bikes with a strong emphasis on top speed and acceleration. They typically are powered by motors displacing 1100 cc (67.1 cu in) to 1400 cc (85.4 cu in). Hyper sport bikes are bigger and heavier than super bikes with wet weights generally being close to 500 lb (227 kg). The increased weight compromises race track capabilities in favor of stability at very high speeds that can exceed 180 mph (290 km/h). This compromise also allows manufacturers to design much more comfortable rider ergonomics.
Examples include the Honda CBR1100XX, Kawasaki Ninja ZX-14, BMW K1200R and Suzuki Hayabusa.

Super bike


The term Superbike is a word that is trademarked solely by Ducati Motor Holding, but due to the popularity of the motorcycles in this segment, the super bike term has been generally adopted to describe all bike (regardless of manufacturer) in this classification. Super bikes are large displacement super sport bikes. They have the exact same characteristics as the smaller super sport bikes which are mainly focused on race track performance, but are powered by larger engines that are usually sized around 800 cc (48.8 cu in) to 1100 cc (67.1 cu in). A typical super bike will carry a wet weight between 400 lb (181 kg) to 480 lb (218 kg) and can produce 170 hp (127 kW). Super bikes with a displacement very close to 1000 cc (61 cu in) are sometimes referred to as liter bikes as the engine displaces approximately one liter.
Examples include the Ducati 1098, Honda CBR1000RR, and Yamaha YZF-R1.

Super sport


Super sport bikes (also known as middleweight sport bikes) are sharply focused for optimal performance on a race track. They are generally built around a high revving, small displacement powerplant that is usually sized around 600 cc (36.6 cu in) to 800 cc (48.8 cu in). Most super sport bikes will carry a wet weight between 375 lb (170 kg) to 450 lb (204 kg) and produce 100 hp (75 kW). Because of how strongly focused super sport bikes are on race track performance, riders with heights of 5 ft 2 in and below will generally find trouble being able to flatfoot (the placement of both feet completely flat on the ground while sitting on a motorcycle) these types of sport bikes. In turn, taller riders and heavier riders may find the rider ergonomics in the default position to be cramped and uncomfortable.
Examples include the Honda CBR600RR, Kawasaki ZX-6R, and Triumph Daytona 675.

Small capacity

Small capacity sport bikes are typically of engine sizes ranging from 125 cc (7.6 cu in) to 400 cc (24.4 cu in), but are also produced in as little as 50 cc (3.1 cu in) (sometimes designed/tuned for persons carrying a restricted/learner's license). Small capacity sport bikes are available in both 2-stroke and 4-stroke cycles. Not as commonly produced now are 2-stroke sports bikes, largely restricted in production due to tight emission laws and agreements. Generally small in size, they can suit the shorter rider and the usual light weight means that although they output less power than larger sports bikes. Short wheelbase and lack of weight means handling characteristics are often on par with that of the typical high-capacity sport bike.
Examples include the Aprilia RS250 and Honda CBR125.

Entry-level


Entry-level sport bikes are motorcycles that are meant to introduce motorcyclists to the sport bike design. They are relatively inexpensive, lightweight, and durable. There are minimal to no fairings installed to cut down on cost and maintenance if the motorcycle were to be dropped. Although capable of more power, the engines are usually detuned for longevity and durability. Entry level sport bikes can usually accommodate riders of all heights and weights.
Examples include the Suzuki GS500 and Kawasaki Ninja 500R/250R.

Classes

Although not officially recognized by any major motorcycle organization, the different variations of the sport bike can generally be grouped into several different classes, each containing unique features to that class.

Overview

With the emphasis of a sport bike being on speed, acceleration, deceleration, and maneuverability, there are certain design elements that most motorcycles of this type will share. Sport bikes have comparatively high performance engines resting inside a lightweight frame. The combination of these help maintain structural integrity and chassis rigidity. Braking systems combine higher performance brake pads and multi-piston calipers that clamp onto oversized vented rotors. Suspension systems are advanced in terms of adjustments and materials for increased stability and durability. Front and rear tires are larger and wider than tires found on other types of motorcycles to accommodate higher cornering speeds and greater lean angles. Fairings may or may not be found on a sport bike. When used, the fairings are shaped to reduce aerodynamic drag as much as possible and less as wind protection for the rider. The performance of some stock sport bikes is so great they can be used on a race track right off the showroom floor. It is commonly said of these motorcycles that you can race them on Sunday and ride them to work on Monday.
These overall design traits mean sport bikes are generally less practical for street use when compared to most other types of motorcycles. There is little in the way of extra features or creature comforts like those present on touring motorcycles such as center stands, provisions for saddle bags, large windshields, or fairings providing protection from rain. Rider position and ergonomics are compromised in favor of weight distribution and aerodynamics. This generally means higher foot pegs that move the legs closer to the body and more of a reach to a lower set of hand controls which positions the body and weight forward and over the tank.
The term crotch rocket is slang for some types of sport bikes, mainly super sport and super bikes. The name is derived from the way the rider sits on the bike and from the speed and acceleration or which these bikes are capable. A sport bike's foot pegs and shifter are located farther back than a conventional or 'cruiser' motorcycles; this puts the rider in a position that is more streamlined and aerodynamic and places the rider's crotch in very close contact with the seat.

Fuel economy

Motorcycle fuel economy benefits from the relatively small mass of the vehicle, compared to its passengers and to other motor vehicles, and subsequent small engine displacement. However, poor aerodynamics of exposed passengers and engines designed for goals other than fuel economy can work to reduce these benefits. Riding style has a large effect on fuel economy: some riders report being able to double fuel economy by using low accelerations and lower speeds than usual, although this is the extreme case.
Fuel economy varies greatly with engine displacement and riding style ranging from a low of 29 mpg (U.S.) (8.1 L/100 km) reported by a Honda VTR1000F rider,[4] to 107 mpg (U.S.) (2.2 L/100 km) reported for the Verucci Nitro 50 cc Scooter.[5] A specially designed Matzu Matsuzawa Honda XL125 achieved 470 mpg (U.S.) (0.5 L/100 km) "on real highways - in real conditions."[6]

Construction

Motorcycle construction is the engineering, manufacturing, and assembly of components and systems for a motorcycle which results in performance, cost and aesthetics desired by the designer. With some exceptions, construction of modern mass-produced motorcycles has standardised on a steel or aluminium frame, telescopic forks holding the front wheel, and disc brakes. A one- to six-cylinder gasoline powered engine coupled to a manual, five- or six-speed sequential transmission drives the swingarm-mounted rear wheel by a chain, driveshaft or belt.

History

The inspiration for arguably the first motorcycle was designed and built by the German inventors Gottlieb Daimler and Wilhelm Maybach in Bad Cannstatt (since 1905 a city district of Stuttgat) in 1885.[1] The first petroleum-powered vehicle, it was essentially a motorised bicycle, although the inventors called their invention the Reitwagen ("riding car").
However, if one counts two wheels with steam propulsion as being a motorcycle, then the first one may have been American. One such machine was demonstrated at fairs and circuses in the eastern U.S. in 1867, built by Sylvester Howard Roper of Roxbury, Massachusetts.
In 1894, Hildebrand & Wolfm├╝ller became the first motorcycle available for purchase. In the early period of motorcycle history, many producers of bicycles adapted their designs to accommodate the new internal combustion engine. As the engines became more powerful, and designs outgrew the bicycle origins, the number of motorcycle producers increased.

An historic 1941 Crocker
Until the First World War, the largest motorcycle manufacturer in the world was Indian, producing over 20,000 bikes per year. By 1920, this honour went to Harley-Davidson, with their motorcycles being sold by dealers in 67 countries, until 1928 when DKW took over as the largest manufacturer.
After the Second World War, the BSA Group became the largest producer of motorcycles in the world, producing up to 75,000 bikes a year in the 1950s. The German company NSU Motorenwerke AG held the position of largest manufacturer from 1955 until the 1970s.
From the 1960s through the 1990s, small two-stroke motorcycles were popular worldwide, partly as a result of East German Walter Kaaden's engine work in the 1950s.
Today, the Japanese manufacturers, Honda, Kawasaki, Suzuki, and Yamaha dominate the motorcycle industry, although Harley-Davidson still maintains a high degree of popularity in the United States. Recent years have also seen a resurgence in the popularity of several other brands sold in the U.S. market, including BMW, KTM, Triumph, Aprilia, Moto Guzzi and Ducati.
Outside of the USA, these brands have enjoyed continued and sustained success, although Triumph, for example, has been re-incarnated from its former self into a modern world-class manufacturer. In overall numbers, however, the Chinese currently manufacture and sell more motorcycles than any other country and exports are rising. The quality of these machines is asserted to be somewhat lower than their Japanese, European and American counterparts .
Additionally, the small-capacity scooter is very popular through most of the world. The Piaggio group of Italy, for example, is one of the world's largest producers of two-wheeled vehicles. The scooter culture has, as yet, not been adopted widely in North America.